Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Ex-Walker Aide Tim Russel Fired From State Job in 1993

Oh ho ho, more telling evidence that Scott Walker is a Walking Moron.

Tim Russell, a close crony of our unillustrious governor, was fired from a job in 1993 for "gross misconduct", according to his personnel records.  He stole some money, improperly billing for hotel stays (no doubt under the guise of state business).

So Walker gives him a job.  Obviously, Scott Walker doesn't know jack $hit about reference checking and qualifications.  But we all knew that, based on who got high paying cabinet positions in his administration.  Incompetents, crooks, and anybody who would say he was King Walker Scotty God. 

So how do all you Walker backers feel about having a Clown College instead of a state?  With your big red noses and inability to walk a straight line while wearing your clown shoes, you all must be drunker than the Mayor of Burbank.

Monday, January 30, 2012

Random Thoughts on Republican Whiners

Here are just a few of my observations on current Wisconsin media coverage.

An elderly woman complaining that the recall means her vote for Scott Walker doesn't count for anything. She is of the firm belief that a recall election cancels her vote, and therefore the democratic process.  Here's my thought.  Recall is part of the democratic process.  It hasn't been used much in gubernatorial cases, Walker will only be the third governor involved in a recall in the history of the United States.  But thank God we have recall as an option or we'd have three more years of a complete idiot driving the leaky boat known as Wisconsin.  Of course, we will sink long before the end of Walker's term, so, again, thank God for the recall process.  Part of democracy.  No wonder republicans don't understand it.  They have no grasp of democracy.

A bunch of right wing volunteers complaining that there are a whole slew of phony signatures and addresses on the recall petitions.  What they fail to mention is that many republicans went out and signed phony names and addresses on the petitions to cast doubt on the process.  Here's what republicans do understand:  dirty, underhanded, completely unfair practices.  Understand it.  Practice it.  And it will be very interesting to see just how many signatures are tossed at the end of the review.  But republicans wasting time is just standard operating procedure.  They're too stupid to accomplish anything.

The rest of the United States recovering, albeit very slowly, from the worst recession this country has ever faced.  Not Wisconsin.  We continue to top the list of jobs lost.  But there's Scott Walker, talking about all the jobs he created.  Where is he hiding those jobs he created?  Why can't we see them?  Is Scott Walker a magician?  Has he made all the jobs he created invisible?  Must be.  You have to find the secret, invisible door to apply for these jobs.  Good luck.

I'm so fed up.  I know a lot of my fellow Wisconsinites are just as fed up.  People who care about Scott Walker should encourage him to resign, because it can't be easy watching someone you care about make such a complete fool of himself, time and again.  Save this half a man from himself, somebody!  

Finally, Jeff Fitzgerald running for Herb Kohl's senate seat.  Jesus H. Christ.  Someone name me pope and throw some red smoke up the vatican chimney.  Because it's an adequate comparison.

I don't suffer fools gladly, never did, never will. 

And I will be relentless on those fools who masquerade as anything but what they actually are.

Sunday, January 29, 2012

Criminals and Thugs

Scott Walker and the entire roster of GOP legislators here in Wisconsin is looking more and more like a booking room at the county jail than legitimate elected representatives here to serve the people.

The fact that many of the people now being looked at by the John Doe have had previous dealings and charges (most of them felonies knocked down to misdemeanors) is very telling. 

The GOP has resorted to little else than dirty politics.   GOP = No Credibility, No Integrity, No Place in Wisconsin.  What they lacked in brain power they found they could make up in criminal intent.

Where is Walker's indictment?  We are all on the edge of our seats, because frankly, lots of people like it when hypocritical eagle scouts and  preacher's sons end up in the can on felonious charges.

If the John Doe will reach its ultimate conclusion reasonably quickly, we can give the taxpayers a break on recall election costs and send this horse's a$$ off to the jail cell he so appropriately deserves.  But first, every citizen who wants to ought to be allowed to take a whack at him with a baseball bat, again, in the interest of saving taxpayer dollars on incarcerations costs.  Hell, it could be a fundraiser.  Pay a Buck Earn a Whack.

Friday, January 27, 2012

I Know Nothing

This is the refrain from Scott Walker's theme song.  Which is why he's a terrible politician.  He truly does know nothing.  His head is crammed full of nothing. 

Unfortunately, someone had to be directing all the criminal activity that happened at the Milwaukee County Courthouse during Walker's tenure.  How long will Scott Walker continue to lie about things?  Is he burning up the phone lines at night, worrying about what might have come up in all the testimony of former staffers in the John Doe investigation? 

One thing is certain, a person engaged in secrecy and illegal maneuvering wouldn't have time to govern anything.  But we all knew Scott Walker wasn't up to governing tasks, so it comes as no surprise. 

He keeps referring to his honor given to him by his wonderful parents and having the rank of Eagle Scout bestowed on him.  Gees.  Daddy's a preacher and I'm an Eagle Scout, therefore, I am   ____________.  You fill it in. 

Thursday, January 26, 2012

There Was a Crooked Man, Who Walked a Crooked Mile

Walker staffers are falling by the wayside.  Indictments and formal charges have been filed.  Scott Walker and his underlings ran his campaign on the Milwaukee County taxpayers dime.  This, from a man who said he was going to cut out government wasteful spending.  He failed to add, "except where it will benefit me".

And Marquette University published a poll that states a majority of people think Scott Walker is doing a good job and will probably win the recall election.  HUH?  On what planet.  Oh yeah, I forget.  The catholic church (and their schools) is an entity onto itself, and what else would one expect from Our Father of Perpetual Molestation?  MU ought to be ashamed.  I'll bet not one person was polled outside Waukesha or Ozaukee counties, where all the big bucks tend to congregate.  Talk about losing credibility.  Me thinks the pollsters have been imbibing in the communal wine a little too heavily.  Or they're eating blotter hosts.  Whatever ......anyone foolish enough to take a roman catholic seriously is, well, spiritually challenged.  What next, an honorary MU degree for Walker.  No doubt in social work.  Let's hope we don't find him doling out food stamps anytime soon.  Poor people are skinny enough.

Where's Walker's indictment?  Surely setting up a secret communications network is evidence that the man is a crook.  That's the nicest thing Walker's been called.  It's nice to see him up to his ass in alligators. 

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

State of the State

Ugh.  Walker's face stinking up my television screen.  Am I going to watch?  No.  There is nothing Walker could say that I would (A) believe or (B) agree with.

The governor could speed up the annoying process of useless political speeches, otherwise known as bold-faced lies, by getting in front of the cameras and saying two things:  Wisconsin is f*cked and I'm the f*cker who did it.

Pretty much sums it up.

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Who Does Scott Walker Represent?

Only four contributors managed to add $1,000,000 to Walker's anti-recall campaign.  Four.  Four people with enough cashola to help bail water from the sinking ship Walker.

You have to ask yourself......who does Scott Walker represent?  Answer:  NOT YOU!  Not you, unless you're a millionaire.

Come on you idiots.  Get real.  A vote for Scott Walker is a vote against yourself.  Why can't Walker supporters grasp this very simple fact?  Better question.....why are so many idiots living in the United States?

Maybe this has become the land of dumb and dumber, in which case, Walker would be the logical choice for elected office.  But only if that's true.  I'd like to be optimistic enough to believe there are enough intelligent people out there who can see through this governor's absolute fraud.

Sunday, January 22, 2012

Scott Walker's Rally a Large Bust

Even the news media wouldn't say how many people showed up to support Scott Walker at his rally in Hart Park yesterday.  They referred to it as a "large crowd".  I assume that means quite a few hundred less than the thousand people they were hoping for.

Of course, those of us who are determined to oust this wretched bastard from the governor's mansion, showed up too. 

It's never fun to be in the minority.  Never.  But you have to admire the people who did show up at the rally.  I certainly wouldn't want to be associated with that much stupidity. 

Walker didn't show up himself.  That, somehow, is a telling fact.  Don't tell me he was busy.  Walker is never busy, he doesn't have the mind for it.  He was embarrassed, as well he should be.  Maybe he's just a little bit afraid too.  So he sends his wife.  What a coward.

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Pin Head Ideology

Scott Walker returning federal funds that would benefit health care for indigent folks.  Can Wisconsin afford this?

Mike Gableman refusing to recuse himself from cases where it's proven he has personal interests.  Can Wisconsin afford such a horse's arse on the Supreme Court?

Just two classic examples of ideology gone wrong.  Why do we have to suffer because of the blatantly unthought out and lacking in compassion views of a few clowns who managed to get themselves into positions of power?  Answer --- because of the wild beliefs of a few people who don't have a clue to whom or what they're voting for.  Voting is a right.  Too bad it can't be tied to basic intelligence.  Oh.  Voting is now ONLY a right in Wisconsin if you have an I.D. card.  Because, you know, there were about a dozen people who committed voter fraud in the last election.  Repress the rights of millions, right?  Wrong.  But this is just more proof of the wrongness of Scott Walker's administration.

Suppose we gave a rally, and no one showed up, especially the rally planned today for Scott Walker in Hart Park today.  They expect 1,000 supporters, but Walker won't be there.  Those 1,000 supporters can't hold a candle to the 1.9 million recall petitioner signers, but I guess the fools will show up anyway.   This explains that the rich don't have enough imagination to do something fun on a cold, winter weekend in Wisconsin.  I suggest they stay home and count their money.  Personally, why anyone would show up to a pro-Walker rally is amazing to me.  Certainly, their faces will be on the television news tonight.  Would you want to be lumped together in a crowd of STUPIDS?  Save face, stay home.

And let's talk about the illegal redistricting maps drawn by republicans that would give unfair advantage to them in future elections.  Walker's administration teeters on the totally illegal.  The other side of that is the totally dumb.  More legislation that's ending up in the courts.  This is Walker's legacy. 

And on a local level, the County Sheriff being sued by the County Executive.  Anarchy now.  Throw everyone out.  Have a government based on the jury duty protocol --- get a notice, serve four or six years.  Get your a$$ out.  Career politicians are a bane to our society.  They ultimately turn into career a$$holes.

Friday, January 20, 2012


Scott Walker's rather stupid and increasingly annoying face appears on local television too much these days, touting how he's done well in bringing jobs to Wisconsin.  Question is.  What jobs?

Wisconsin's jobs have declined for the 6th month in a row.  Excuse me?  Where does Walker find the unmitigated gall to so bold faced lie, continuously.  Lies, spoken frequently and often enough, become truth to those who are too ignorant to research a fact.  Face it, if a person believes everything a politician says, well, they should apply for social security disability because they are either mentally defective or utterly senile.  Or just plain stupid.  That pretty much sums up Walker supporters.

Oh, wait.  I get it.  Scott Walker must be talking about the jobs he's created for his cronies.  Like Dennis Smith, who wouldn't know a good health or human service if it bit him in his a$$.  Or the job that went to a person with virtually no experience as a county clerk in northern Wisconsin.  Oh, Scott Walker is talking about jobs into which he placed his (ever dwindling supply of) cronies. 

Granted, we're in a deep recession here in Amerika, but even the country is faring far better than the state of Wisconsin.  Only one explanation.  We've got an idiot at the helm.  Wisconsin is the Titanic, no, worse; the Costa Whatsit that slammed into a reef off Italy.  That captain was intent on blowing his big horn, too. 

I am dismayed that the people in Wisconsin, some of them my neighbors no doubt, have aligned themselves with such a complete and utter moron.  Scott Walker is leading us into economic, environmental and educational hell.  I literally have to put my hands on my head to keep it from exploding every single time I see a Walker television ad.  With all the bad electricity running around Walker's skull, we can only hope he'll suffer spontaneous human combustion soon and literally become what he is figuratively, a pile of charred a$$h.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Bye Bye Perry!

Thankfully, Rick Perry has bowed out of the race for the republican nomination.   I've never liked Texas.  They like things big down there.  Big steaks.  Big ranches.  Big Oil.  Big Blonde Bimbos.  Big is Texas' catch word.  But bad things come in big, too.  Boy, they grow some bad big boys down there.  People who seem to have traded intelligence for size.  I guess I've never seen much good come out of Texas.  I always thought we should give it back to Mexico, or turn it over to the Palestinians.  At any rate, Rick Perry is one big bozo who would have made a terrible president.  Good riddance. 

So we've got Mitt.  Big, rich Mitt.  Yeah.  Right.  Another millionaire in the White House, pretending to represent the common man. 

Newt.  Gees.  This guys moral compass broke a long, long time ago.  And he's an over eater and an over indulger.

Santorum belongs in a sanitarium.  He needs treatments for his aversion to all things humanoid.

Ron Paul.  Out of touch with 21st century problems.

These are the candidates.  The republicans have a whole lot more to worry about than successfully challenging Obama.  It has become the party of doofusses, there's no doubt about it.  Can anyone in the world take America seriously?  I live here, and I can't, based on this roster.

Wednesday, January 18, 2012

Blah Blah Blah

Yes, tis the season when the winter blahs descend on all of us, that is, all of us stuck living in the frigid zones.

Even Scott Walker's self appreciating television ads are blah.  He always looks like a person whose mind is elsewhere.  And I AM being nice.  There is no physical proof that Scott Walker actually has a mind.

So here's some things you can do to enjoy life more in the dark days of Blah Season:

1.  Drink alcohol.  (Do this at home)

2.  Go to the Movies.  My recommendations:  The Descendants.  The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.  Escapism on the silver screen has always been one of my favorite ways to ignore the cold. 

3.  Plan a gambling weekend.  It's always hot in the casinos.

4.  Research the ponies for when the tracks open next spring.

5.  Deface posters of Scott Walker.  Always carry a black magic marker.

6.  Go on vacation.  I am, but not until April.  By then, the days will be getting somewhat better (I can only hope.)

7.  Plan and cook hearty, hot, winter meals.

8.  Take your dog for a walk to get rid of the hearty, hot winter meals.

9.  Bake bread.  I love to bake bread.  I love to pound the hell out of a lump of dough, pretending it's every republican I love to hate.

10.  Move.

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

3,000 Pounds of Trouble for Oil Can Scotty

As Scott Walker speaks to the camera about his confidence that the citizens of Wisconsin will look at his record as "doing what he said he would do", the democrats turned in over 1,000,000 signatures on recall petitions today; the signed petitions weighing over 3,000 pounds.

I guess Scott Walker failed to remember that he did what he didn't say he'd do, i.e., destroy public employee unions. 

I guess Scott Walker thinks we all have very short memories and we'll conveniently forget all the damage he has done, all the shady maneuverings of his administration, and all the legislation he has proposed that is now winding its way through the courts because it is, after all, illegal.

Citizens, don't forget that Scott Walker is nothing more than an absolute liar.  We don't need nor do we want a lying S.O.B. as the head of the State of Wisconsin.  We can't afford to have an air head legislating our State into bankruptcy.  And that is sure to come unless we recall Walker NOW!  Looks like it's going to happen.  Oh Happy Day!

Monday, January 16, 2012

Today It Really Sucks to be in Wisconsin

Everyone in Wisconsin, with rare exception, is a Packer fan.  So today, all of us feel just awful.  You know a few bad games had to be played, it's just sad that one of them occurred during an important playoff.

Oh well.  You can't always get what you want.  And, you can't always win.  But you can still admire and respect the Packer's season, and feel thankful that the players are going to get some much needed (obviously) rest.

So, let's see.  Badgers lose the Rosebowl much like a game of deja vu.  Packers lose to the Giants.  Fan fervor cooled for now.  Walker still in office (recall petitions due tomorrow).  Gableman still sitting on the supreme court.  Abele not doing a whole lot for Milwaukee County unless its a way to shaft retirees.  Clarke looking more and more like an egomaniacal mad man than a law enforcement official.  I guess our only bright spots are the Mayor and the Police Chief.  Oh well, that's not too bad in the overall scheme of things.

Sunday, January 15, 2012

Do The Republicans Have Enough Rope?

Watching the continuing debacle of Scott Walker's administration is a lesson in politics gone wrong.

The rapid exit of high-ranking Walker staff members when the John Doe investigation started.

Mike Gableman in hot water because of his unethical judicial behavior.

Money intended for families of wounded and killed Iraq war veterans stolen by high ranking Walker appointees.

The John Doe investigation churning on.

There does not seem to be an end to the allegations of misconduct by republican legislators.

So I suggest we all go to the hardware store and buy a length of clothesline, then send it to all republicans in the State of Wisconsin.  They probably have enough rope to hang themselves, but let's give them more, insuring the job will be well done and final. 

Saturday, January 14, 2012

More Scott Walker $hithead Legislating

It should come as no surprise that the redistricting maps, drawn by the republican party here in Wisconsin, are completely inaccurate.

In fact, it should come as no surprise that anything Scott Walker or his administration conspires to do will be completely inaccurate.

His latest television campaign has him speaking to what a good governor he is because he closed the budget deficit without raising taxes.  Problem with that self-appreciating statement is that there was no budget deficit in the first place.  All the hype was created so Scott Walker could gut public employee unions.  The only thing Walker is capable of closing is his fly.  Let's hope that stays in the realm of possibility for him.  Of course, being the giant dick he is, what difference (and what sort of accomplishment) is that?

Anyhow, as I've stated many times in this blog, the only thing Scott Walker does is enact legislation that ultimately ends up in the courts, costing taxpayers far more money than the original legislation proposed to save.  The man is an idiot.  Anyone who agrees with him is an idiot.  Anyone who votes for him is an idiot.  And anyone who thinks Scott Walker should not be recalled is a f*cking idiot.

I look forward to announcements next week that Walker will be on the recall ballot.  More importantly, I look forward to an announcement from the courts that Scott Walker will be prosecuted.  Stupid is no excuse.  The man is a criminal.  Let's hope the grand jury can uncover the underhanded maneuverings of Scott Walker, and then bust him accordingly.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Liar, Lair, Pants on Fire -- or -- Scott Walker's Next Career - Spin Doctor

Who is John Doe?

Only the investigators know for sure.  Walker's spin -- he initiated the John Doe investigation, which is at best a total crock of horse$hit.  Mr. Walker first told the press he had no idea what or whom the John Doe investigation was targeting.  Now he's claiming to be responsible for starting it.  I believe Oil Can Scotty is starting to suffer loose stools on a regular basis.  Well, that's only fitting for such a flaming A$$hole.  And that bald spot, man, it's growin' by leaps and bounds.

Scott Walker and his cronies are trying to keep secret how they went about redrawing legislative district lines.  Well, that's GOP at its finest, cheat, lie, steal.  Their motto.  How can anyone in public office have any sort of credibility when their actions are cloaked in secrecy?

And, my rant for today involves another pillar of non-leadership, political hack, David A. Clarke, Milwaukee County Sheriff.  This guy is the poster boy for egomania.  Personally, he's about as dumb as they come.  Why would anyone want to pi$$ off all of those employees who have a legal mandate to carry firearms?  No mental giant there.  Sheriff Clarke couldn't lead a horse to water.  But he seems to be drinking an awful lot based on his insane policies, directives and staff harassment.  Another candidate for Yokel of the Year.

Monday, January 9, 2012

Where's the Outrage?

One of Scott Walker's high ranking administators gets busted with his hand in the veteran's cookie jar.  His domestic partner is charged with enticing a minor.

Scott Walker's response ......"Disappointed".

Yeah.  Right.  Disappointed.  Like the teachers feel about Scott Walker as governor?  I think they have a stronger word, perhaps several stronger words, like the seven words that can't be said on television.

Where is the outrage?  Where is the justice.  Where is Walker's moral code?  Missing in action.  Much like his brain.  Scott Walker has got to go.  And damn quick.  If this isn't misconduct in public office, I don't know what is.

Saturday, January 7, 2012

Big To Do About Nothing

Robin Voss, that pillar of morally corrupt concepts of governance, has been screaming about the $9 million it will cost the State of Wisconsin to recall Scott Walker.

But a review shows that the number of dollars Scott Walker has lost for the State of Wisconsin is in the billions. 

What Wisconsin taxpayers cannot afford is any more governance by someone as mathematically challenged as Scott Walker or his supporters seem to be.  That's just simple bookkeeping common sense.

If it cost a billion dollars to recall Scott Walker, it would be money well spent in terms of overall saving.

Thursday, January 5, 2012

We Are All Wondering

We are all wondering about the John Doe investigation currently being conducted here in Milwaukee.  Most of us, that is to say, most reasonable people, believe the investigation will ultimately lead to indictments.  But for whom?

Personally, Scott Walker has always seemed a little oily to me.  Despite his protestations to the contrary and his uncanny ability to put forth the republican poster boy image he's been groomed to present his entire political life, there is a stench about Scott Walker and his administration that cannot be denied.  I smell pig.

I have watched Scott Walker trash the state I was born in.  I have watched him trash the lives of simple, working class people.  I have seen him lie, unabashedly in every television spot bought and paid for by millionaires, and millionaire funded radical right groups.  I have watched the propaganda that Scott Walker and his supporters have put forth in an effort to mask their shortcomings in an ability to govern in a democracy.  Govern?  These guys don't have a clue about democracy, but they are our leaders.  We're in big trouble, folks.  What I didn't realize until now is that Scott Walker is not interested at all in preserving the democracy that this country was founded on.  He's bent on destroying it.  That makes him a fraud, a crook, a a fascist and a traitor.  But he wraps it all up nicely in God and flag, doesn't he? 

I'm sick of seeing Scott Walker's face ANYWHERE.  In fact, the only place I'll ever be happy to see his face is on a mug shot.  Let's hope it's coming.  I think it is.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Can Anyone in Scott Walker's Administration Add or Subtract?

There is one truth about Scott Walker's Administration.  Their financial numbers all turn out to be wrong. 

This leads me to believe that everything coming out of Madison these days in the form of financial reporting is just more propaganda; a favorite ploy of the GOP, and an especial pet of Scott Walker.  Mr. Walker doesn't have to bother understanding the taxpayer dollar or the state budget, because it's all just a whole lot of stinkin' crap.  With enough spin, horse$hit becomes a budgetary deficit.  With enough repetition, lies become truth.

It is very important that the citizens of Wisconsin understand that Mr. Walker is incapable of analyzing complex financial data, or arriving at reasonable budgetary solutions.  What Mr. Walker is capable of is putting his hands and feet in the puppet strings of the oligarchy taking over this country.

We'd better beware of Mr. Walker, and any politician like him; that is so say, most of the GOP.  We had better find a way to slap these people back if we can't rid our government of their presence.  We'd better start thinking in terms of fighting a much bigger fight than simply recalling Scott Walker.

Monday, January 2, 2012

Things to Throw Out Along with your Christmas Tree

Having just tossed out my needle dropping, but still beautiful Christmas tree, I consciously made some choices of things I was going to throw out along with it, so I could really start the new year with a fresh living space and attitude.

The belief that anything material I get for myself will bring me any peace or happiness.

The worry that I just don't like a whole lot of people.  Frankly, a whole lot of people are simply unlikeable.
Don't worry about it.  But always be cordial.

I've tossed the idea that I can help people who absolutely refuse to help themselves.

The Welcome Doormat I've always walked around with in front of me.  You're welcome to share my life, but don't wipe your dirty feet on me, or you'll see my dark side.

The optimism I once had that we can all work together on this planet.  I need to replace that optimism with something more realistic, like social activism.

The grief I've carried around with me for far too long, for people, for events, for all the injustices everyone of us has endured since the dawn of time.  No more grief.  If I mourn anything, I mourn the times when there was nothing to grieve over.

Most importantly, I think we all need to throw out the apathy we feel about our lives and the people in them.  Apathy is our way of feeling comfortable when we're overwhelmed with demands placed on us.  Face it, everyone of us is overwhelmed.  The answer is to be overwhelmingly involved.  It's not debilitating, it's exhilarating.

Throw out your complacency while you're at it.  None of us should be complacent, no matter where we stand on the tree of life.  You can always do more.  Do better.  Give more of yourself.  There are great rewards for those who do.

Lastly, get rid of your fear, whatever your fear is.  Meet piles of trials with smiles.

Sunday, January 1, 2012


Well, I'm starting the year with a bad cold, caught from the little germ factory otherwise known as my step-granddaughter.

Went to bed shortly after a glass of champagne at midnight, only to hear a loud car crash practically outside my window.  Lost all my money gambling with cards and dice.  My relatives are SOOOO accomplished at games of chance.

Thought about my new year's resolution.  I didn't do so well on last year's, the one where I promised to stop swearing so much.  Ah, well.  Politics frenzy my quest for serenity.

So, for 2012, I can only say that I hope Wisconsin returns to some normalcy and that we indeed rid our state of the pestilence known as the Scott Walker administration.

HAPPY NEW YEAR to all good citizens.  And for the GOP here in this state; may 2012 be the year of exposure and expulsion.